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Research Reports

MRR 213: Assessing Retro-Reflective Markers (RRMs) Usage On Heavy Goods Vehicles

Since 2011, MS 828:2011 (Malaysian Standard) has been gazetted to guide industry on the  right specification  to  follow  with  regards  to  RRMs.  The  implementation  of  MS 828:2011  has been  announced  by  Transport  Minister  of  Malaysia  in  June  2016  and  all trucks  and trailers  in  Malaysia  are  compulsory  to  install  RRMs  which  complied  to  MS 828:2011 starting on 1 July 2016.  
 
In order for better visibility of long, heavy goods vehicles and their trailers, etc., these vehicles have to be marked with effective and complied RRMs in order to reduce the number of rear-end collision, in particular, related to conspicuity issue. However, the RRMs  that  are  being  used by the  heavy  and  long  vehicle  including  in  the  current market  were  not up to the standard with  respect  to colorimetric,  photometric  and dimension. 
 
The objectives of this study are i) to identify the current status of RRMs in Malaysia, ii) to profile the photometric values of current RRMs and iii) to determine usage rate of substandard  RRMs on heavy  goods  vehicles  and the current  market.  This study  has identified the current status of RRMs on heavy goods vehicles (trucks and lorries) and current market with regards to the compliance of MS 828:2011.  
 
Market   surveillance,   samples   testing   and   drivers’   interview   were   conducted   to determine on current RRMs usage and to analyse the photometric values of RRMs with respect to MS 828:2011. Fifty samples of RRMs were purchased randomly at hardware and accessories shops. Real world samples were collected randomly from 100 lorries who stopped at Sungai Buloh Rest Area. The old RRMs on the lorries were changed with  the  new  RRMs  which complied  to  MS  828:2011.  Also,  for  the  drivers’  interview, 100 of trucks and lorries drivers were randomly selected during the samples collection from their vehicles at Sungai Buloh rest area. 

The  descriptive  analysis  was  carried  out  for  this  study.  As  a  result,  62%  of  RRMs on heavy  goods  vehicles  were  still  not  in  good  condition  and  covered  by  dirt  beside only 4% of the RRMs samples complied with MS 828:2011. Also, from this study, it can be concluded that the majority of the RRMs in the current market and have been used by current heavy goods vehicles are of substandard quality. From the findings, the usage of counterfeit markings or not up to standard markers may not be fully functional to reflect the light emanating from the headlights of other motorists to warn them that they are closing in on heavy vehicles. This is dangerous to the other road users who are travelling at the night time and they are at risk to be involved with the rear end crashes especially with the lorries and trucks that are using non-compliance markers. 
 
After taking into consideration all the findings, several recommendations are proposed for  the consideration  of  the  related  authorities  such  as  to  make  mandatory  for  all lorries  and trucks  to  install  RRMs  that  comply  to  MS  828:2011,  and  to  implement effective enforcement  towards  the  usage  of  RRMs.  Also,  the  awareness  program related to RRMs for the lorry owners and fleet operators should be implemented  to give the awareness regarding the usage of RRMs. Further study also can be conducted to carried out to look the comparison percentage usage of RRMs with complied to MS 828:2011 before and after implementation.

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MRR 213Assessing Retro-reflective Markers (RRMs) Usage on Heavy Vehicles.pdf
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