Automated Enforcement System (AES) namely Red Light Camera (RLC) is an intervention to curb red light running. It is defined as a technical recording device that is triggered automatically when a violation occurs, so that information of the offending driver is recorded, making it easier to identify the vehicle for the purpose to sanction owner or driver. Four intersections with a high rate of accidents were selected as observation sites. After four (4) years of implementation and the system has been renamed to AwAS (Awareness Automated Safety System), debates are still arising whether the installation is beneficial and whether they have improved safety or merely acted as a revenue generator to Malaysia, as some alleged from the start. Having those questions in mind, this study aims to evaluate whether AES is still effective in reducing red light running violations. With the reduction of red light running incidence, the likelihood of crashes to happen will also reduce.
In general, the study showed an overall reduction in violation rate two (2) years after installation with 2.16% as compared to before installation (4.29%) before being on the rise four (4) years after with 3.82%. Motorcycles held the position as the highest contributor in violation rate, whereas cars and other types of vehicles recorded almost similar violation rate. Perak stated higher violation rate than Kuala Lumpur before installation with 5.19% as compared to Kuala Lumpur with 3.71%; before switching to Kuala Lumpur is the higher violator for after two (2) years and after (4) four years. Drivers ran the red light more often during off-peak hours with 4.67% as compared to during peak hours with 3.91% for before installation, which then changed to more violations during peak hours (two (2) years after: 3.10% and four (4) years after: 5.30%) as compared to off-peak hours (two (2) years after: 1.40% and four (4) years after: 2.65%). As for the type of day, weekdays showed a higher violation rate with 4.30% before, 2.86% two (2) years after and 4.63% after four (4) years than weekends with 4.29% before, 1.40% two (2) years after and 2.80% after four (4) years.
Those issues mentioned in the 1st paragraph have led to revising the amount of fine and many unsettled summonses. This initiative has created an opportunity and attitude for drivers to ignore their summonses since previous traffic offenders that have to pay the full fine will feel unfair. This could explain the increase in violation trend starting from two (2) years after implementation.